स्तस्मात्पराङ्पश्यति नान्तरात्मन् । विद्यामेतां योगविधिं च कृत्स्नम् । higher than the intellect is the great Ātman, and that it is not easy to know. तयोर्ध्वमायन्नमृतत्वमेति wonderful is the teacher, Here Ends the first section of the first part of the Katha Upanishad. तदेव शुक्रं तद्ब्रह्म तदेवामृतमुच्यते । As thou hast remained three nights in my house without food, That by which one knows this Ātman cannot be truly known, Paul Deussen states that verses 1.3.10 to 1.3.13 of Katha Upanishad is one of the earliest mentions of the elements of Yoga theory, and the recommendation of Yoga as a path to the highest goal of man, that is a life of spiritual freedom and liberation. इन्द्रियाणां पृथग्भावमुदयास्तमयौ च यत् । 135), and also in the Taittiriya Brahmana (3.1.8), and later the Mahabharata (Anusasana Parva 106). शतं चैका च हृदयस्य नाड्य- एतद्ध्येवाक्षरं ब्रह्म एतद्ध्येवाक्षरं परम् । Nachiketa says that if gods doubt that, then he "Yama" as deity of death ought to be the only one who knows the answer. अथ मर्त्योऽमृतो भवत्यत्र ब्रह्म समश्नुते ॥ १४ ॥, yadā sarve pramucyante kāmā ye'sya hṛdi śritāḥ | Just like one light exists and penetrates the cosmic space, enveloping and clinging to everything and every form individually, the "one inner Self" of beings exists and dwells in all beings, clings to every form and remains still without, states the Katha Upanishad. हन्त त इदं प्रवक्ष्यामि गुह्यं ब्रह्म सनातनम् । Both Whitney and Deussen independently suggest yet another variation to Nachiketa, with etymological roots that is relevant to Katha Upanishad: the word Na-ciketa also means "I do not know, or he does not know". मा मोपरोत्सीरति मा सृजैनम् ॥ २१ ॥, devairatrāpi vicikitsitaṁ purā He who with devotion recites this highest secret of immortality Another teacher like unto thee is not to be found. प्रमाद्यन्तं वित्तमोहेन मूढम् । O Brāhmaṇa! Vedanta Sutras3. na hi suvijñeyamaṇureṣa dharmaḥ | अभिध्यायन् वर्णरतिप्रमोदान् एवं धर्मान् पृथक् पश्यंस्तानेवानुविधावति ॥ १४ ॥, yathodakaṁ durge vṛṣṭaṁ parvateṣu vidhāvati | How am I to know It? पञ्चाग्नयो ये च त्रिणाचिकेताः ॥ १ ॥, ṛtaṁ pibantau sukṛtasya loke इति काठकोपनिषदि द्वितीयाध्याये तृतीया वल्ली ॥ A verse in the Upanishad inspired the title and the epigraph of W. Somerset Maugham's 1944 novel The Razor’s Edge, later adapted, twice, into films of the same title. May our study bring us illumination. Max Müller and many others have translated it. The Katha Upanishad, in verses 2.6.6 through 2.6.13 recommends a path to Self-knowledge, and this path it calls Yoga. The text contains the mantras in Sanskrit, their transliteration in Tamil, word-by-word meaning in Tamil, the summary of each mantra and the essence of the various sections in each Upanishad. rūpaṁ rūpaṁ pratirūpo babhūva | is not defiled by external impurities seen by the eyes, पुरुषान्न परं किंचित्सा काष्ठा सा परा गतिः ॥ ११ ॥, mahataḥ paramavyaktamavyaktātpuruṣaḥ paraḥ | मनसस्तु परा बुद्धिर्बुद्धेरात्मा महान्परः ॥ १० ॥, indriyebhyaḥ parā hyarthā arthebhyaśca paraṁ manaḥ | यस्य ब्रह्म च क्षत्रं च उभे भवत ओदनः । as the lord of the past and the future, Such is the teaching. यथा पुरस्ताद् भविता प्रतीत wonderful is he who can receive when taught by an able teacher. ya etadviduramṛtāste bhavanti || 9 ||. छायातपयोरिव ब्रह्मलोके ॥ ५ ॥, yathā''darśe tathā''tmani yathā svapne tathā pitṛloke | to them belongs eternal bliss, not to others. यं ज्ञात्वा मुच्यते जन्तुरमृतत्वं च गच्छति ॥ ८ ॥, avyaktāttu paraḥ puruṣo vyāpako'liṅga eva ca | saying, This is That. becomes various according to what it burns, सदा जनानां हृदये संनिविष्टः । The verse 15 of the sixth Valli declares that the Upanishad concludes its teaching therein. Just like a baby is concealed inside a mother's womb when conceived, Atman is concealed inside every creature, states verse 2.4.8 of Katha Upanishad. बहूनामेमि प्रथमो  बहूनामेमि मध्यमः । Meaning is Atman, full of perennial peace. यथोदकं शुद्धे शुद्धमासिक्तं तादृगेव भवति । It is ancient, and recognizable by Yoga (meditation on one's self), states Katha Upanishad. Katha, Isa, Kena, and Mundaka. It combines charming poetry, elevating mysticism, and profound philosophy. bhavati hīyate'rthādya u preyo vṛṇīte || 1 ||. made a gift of all that he possessed. पराचः कामाननुयन्ति बाला- I shall declare unto thee the secret of the eternal Brahman तेषां शान्तिः  शाश्वती नेतरेषाम् ॥ १३ ॥, nityo'nityānāṁ cetanaścetanānām ज्ञानमात्मनि महति नियच्छेत्तद्यच्छेच्छान्त आत्मनि ॥ १३ ॥, yacchedvāṅmanasī prājñastadyacchejjñāna ātmani | svayaṁ ca jīva śarado yāvadicchasi || 23 ||. बहून्पशून् हस्तिहिरण्यमश्वान् । OMI PEACE! Those who are aware of Brahman's essence, are awakened to the knowledge, fear no one and nothing, become immortal as with Brahman. य एष सुप्तेषु जागर्ति कामं कामं पुरुषो निर्मिमाणः । No one can see Him with the eye. May Gautama, my father, be free from anxious thought (about me). By Swami Nikhilananda. The Upanishads speak of the identity of the individual soul and the Supreme Soul. (thus) they fall into the wide-spread snare of death. Zaehner(Oxford, Everymans University Library, 1966), and which is used for the following translationof selections of the Katha Upanishad, we find written: It is to this particular ancient model of the Inner World of man that I referred in the abstract submitted to the Arizona University's "Towards a Science of Consciousness - Tucson II - 1966. Katha rudra Upanishad 101 Kundika Upanishad 104 Maitreya Upanishad 106 Narada parivrajaka Upanishad 111 Nirvana Upanishad 136 Para brahma Upanishad 138 Paramahamsa Upanishad 141 Paramahamsa parivajaka Upanishad 142 Sannyasa Upanishad 146 Satyayani Upanishad 154 3. punaḥ punarvaśamāpadyate me || 6 ||. रूपं रूपं प्रतिरूपो बभूव । I give thee now another boon. eaten grass and given milk for the last time, and that by the Peaceful One (the Paramātman or Supreme Self). नेमा विद्युतो भान्ति कुतोऽयमग्निः । tavaiva nāmnā bhavitā'yamagniḥ अन्यत्र धर्मादन्यत्राधर्मा- the other shore where there is no fear, beyond the Puruṣa there is nothing. यस्त्वविज्ञानवान्भवत्यमनस्कः सदाऽशुचिः । Katha Upaniṣad, Dialog with the Death, full Sanskrit text with transliteration and English translation. imā rāmāḥ sarathāḥ satūryā प्रयतः श्राद्धकाले वा तदानन्त्याय कल्पते । mṛtyoḥ sa mṛtyuṁ gacchati ya iha nāneva paśyati || 11 ||. मृत्युर्यस्योपसेचनं क इत्था वेद यत्र सः ॥ २५ ॥, yasya brahma ca kṣatraṁ ca ubhe bhavata odanaḥ | The man who has a discriminative intellect for the driver, Children (the ignorant) pursue external pleasures; पुरमेकादशद्वारमजस्यावक्रचेतसः । though lying, It goes everywhere. anuṣṭhāya na śocati vimuktaśca vimucyate | etadvai tat || 1 ||. ātmendriyamanoyuktaṁ bhoktetyāhurmanīṣiṇaḥ || 4 ||. mṛtyoḥ sa mṛtyumāpnoti ya iha nāneva paśyati || 10 ||. He who is free from desire and free from grief, Yama arrives and is apologetic for this dishonor to the guest, so he offers Nachiketa three wishes. ste mṛtyoryanti vitatasya pāśam | the wise prefers the good to the pleasant, गुहां प्रविश्य तिष्ठन्तं यो भूतेभिर्व्यपश्यत । एतद्वै तत् ॥ ६ ॥, yaḥ pūrvaṁ tapaso jātamadbhyaḥ pūrvamajāyata | तदानन्त्याय कल्पत इति ॥ १७ ॥, ya imaṁ paramaṁ guhyaṁ śrāvayed brahmasaṁsadi | दिवे दिवे ईड्यो जागृवद्भिर्हविष्मद्भिर्मनुष्येभिरग्निः । एतद्वै तत् ॥ ८ ॥, araṇyornihito jātavedā garbha iva subhṛto garbhiṇībhiḥ | tvāṁ dadṛśivānmṛtyumukhāt pramuktam || 11 ||. They who live in the realm of heaven enjoy freedom from death. दन्द्रम्यमाणाः परियन्ति मूढा नित्योऽनित्यानां चेतनश्चेतनानाम् A similar simile is found in ancient Greek literature, such as the Parmenides, Xenophon's prologue of Prodikos, and in the Platonic dialogue Phaedrus. when the Ātman is united with body, senses and mind, The Katha Upanishad consists of two chapters (Adhyāyas), each divided into three sections (Vallis). na hīdṛśā lambhanīyā manuṣyaiḥ | thou sayest that even the Devas had doubts about this, before the thoughtless child (the ignorant), They are: 1. dāvṛttacakṣuramṛtatvamicchan || 1 ||. हन्ता चेन्मन्यते हन्तुँ हतश्चेन्मन्यते हतम् । Hast remained three nights in my house without food, therefore choose three boons, o,! Living being gocarān | ātmendriyamanoyuktaṁ bhoktetyāhurmanīṣiṇaḥ || 4 || scripture of Hinduism, such as katha upanishad full 's! 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